As a writer, nothing irritates me more than the frequency with which I encounter typographical errors, misspelled words, incorrect word usage, and grammatical mistakes.
It's understandable: there's no time for proofreading when you're in full creative flow. But once your story's done, take a step back.
Have you made any of these top-ten grammatical errors in your manuscript? No worries! Here's how to fix them.
Error #1: Commas
The most abused error is the incorrect use of commas. Commas are used (1) to separate words in a list; (2) to join compound sentences; and (3) after introductory phrases.
With compound sentences, each clause can stand on its own as a separate and complete sentence. In these cases, a comma must be used to divide the clauses.
You should also use a comma after introductory phrases, such as after, although, however, indeed, unless, before, but, and, yet, so, etc. Otherwise, the passage becomes a run-on sentence.
A good rule of thumb is: If you pause when you say the sentence, a comma goes where you paused.
Error #2: Subject/Verb Agreement
Simply, they must agree. It is incorrect to say: “The teacher are strict.” It should be, “The teacher is strict.”
Error #3: Pronoun Usage
This is when the pronoun does not agree in number with the noun to which it refers. For example, it is incorrect to say, “Each of us are getting good grades.” The correct sentence: “Each of us is getting good grades.”
Error #4: Apostrophe Usage
Apostrophes denote possession, but they are never used after a possessive pronoun, such as his, hers, their, theirs, yours or ours. Example: “Her store is across the street from his’ store” is incorrect. It should be, “Her store is across the street from his store.”
Error #5: Colons and Semicolons
Colons should be used to introduce lists, explanations, or sometimes quotations. Semicolons should be used to connect independent clauses. People tend to confuse their functions.
Error #6: Your vs. You’re
This is a common error. “Your” is a possessive pronoun, as in “your daughter” or “your cat.” “You’re” is a contraction that means “you are,” as in “you’re annoying me by misusing your when you mean you are.”
Error #7: Its vs. It’s
The same principle applies here, and the mistake is just as commonplace. Only use the apostrophe when you mean "it is."
Error #8: Their vs. There
“There” can either be an adverb, adjective, or pronoun depending on how it is used, and usually indicates place. “Their” is a plural possessive pronoun.
Error #9: Which vs. That
“Which” introduces non-restrictive clauses; i.e., an additional, but not necessarily essential or crucial, part of a sentence. The word “that” introduces restrictive clauses; i.e., the necessary parts of a sentence that cannot be removed. Confusing their usage is a common mistake made by experienced and novice writers.
Error #10: Who vs. Whom
Both of these words are pronouns, but “who” refers to the subject of a sentence, while “whom” refers to the object of a sentence. In English, subjects do the action, while objects receive the action. It is incorrect to say, “Who did you talk to?” Also incorrect is “Whom wrote that book?”
In conclusion, I admit that English is not an easy language to master. So, if this article has helped you in any way, here’s to your improvement. Happy writing!
(Guest post by ArtistRJ19)